5. New Zealand Data and Information Management Principles

The New Zealand Data and Information Management Principles, dated August 8, 2011, sets broad goals for how government data should be published.[214] It is excerpted here.

The document sets strict standards for when data can be charged for. The paragraph headed Reusable draws on the 8 Principles. It addresses rarer concerns such as authority and long-term preservation.


Open. Data and information held by government should be open for public access unless grounds for refusal or limitations exist under the Official Information Act or other government policy. In such cases they should be protected.

Protected. Personal, confidential and classified data and information are protected.

Readily Available. Open data and information are released proactively and without discrimination. They are discoverable and accessible and released online.

Trusted and Authoritative. Data and information support the purposes for which they were collected and are accurate, relevant, timely, consistent and without bias in that context. Where possible there is an identified authoritative single source.

Well Managed. ... long-term preservation and access ... collaborating with other agencies and the public, facilitating access, strengthening awareness, and supporting international cooperation.

Reasonably Priced. Use and re-use of government held data and information is expected to be free. Charging for access is discouraged. Pricing to cover the costs of dissemination is only appropriate where it can be clearly demonstrated that this pricing will not act as a barrier to the use or re-use of the data. If a charge is applied for access to data, it should be transparent, consistent, reasonable and the same cost to all requestors.

Reusable. Data and information released can be discovered, shared, used and re-used over time and through technology change. Copyright works are licensed for re-use and open access to and re-use of non-copyright materials is enabled, in accordance with the New Zealand Government Open Access and Licensing framework. Data and information are released: at source, with the highest possible level of granularity, in re-usable, machine-readable format, with appropriate metadata; and in aggregate or modified forms if they cannot be released in their original state. Data and information released in proprietary formats are also released in open, non-proprietary formats. Digital rights technologies are not imposed on materials made available for re-use.


A separate document, the New Zealand Government Open Access and Licensing framework, approved in August 2010, sets standards for data licensing. It recommends a Creative Commons license, one that requires the data user to attribute the data back to the government.[215]

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